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Press to see a list of groups the user does not belong to. Highlight the group to which you wish to add the user. If you want to add the user to more than one group, use the Mark key F5 to mark each group. The user is now a member of the selected group.

Highlight User Infonnadon and press. The users on the current file sewer will be displayed. Highlight the user you want to delete from a group and press. Highlight the group from which you want to delete the user. If you want to delete the user from more than one group, use the Mark key CF5 to mark the additional groups. Then press. The user has now been deleted from the group. Making a User To make a user a trustee of a directory, follow these steps: a Trustee of a Directory 1. Highlight the user you want to make a trustee of a directory and press.

Highlight Trustee Msipments and press. Specify the directory in which you want to make the user a trustee. If you specify a nonexistent directoxy, you will be asked if you want to create that directory. If you do not know the directory name, press the key to list available file servers.

The user now has all trustee rights in the specified directory. If you want to delete several rights, use the Mark key to mark them. The right has been revoked. If you want to add several rights, use the Mark key to mark them. The right has been granted.

When you print on a network printer, you do not send print job requests directly to the printer. Instead, you send your requests to the file server. Print job requests are stored and serviced in the order in which they are received. Some applications for example; WordPerfect Network Version are designed for use on a network.

The files must either be in ASCII format or formatted by the application with the correct control characters for a designated printer. D fining To define a printefs functions, complete the following steps: Print Device Functions 1. The name should be recognizable to users for example: HP LaserJet. Choose the print device you want to define, and press.

Be sure to include the reset escape sequence. To enter a device function, press. Enter the actual escape sequence e. Repeat Steps 5 through 8 for each function or escape sequence you want to enter. Defb ng Print Once you have defined the functions for a print device, you can Device Modes combine these functions into modes.

A mode is a sequence of print functions which tells the printer how to print a particular job. Determine what your printing needs are, and define the modes accordingly. To define print device modes, complete the following steps. Most devices have a single escape sequence for reset. Choose the function or escape sequence for the reset and press. After you have entered the Reinitialize mode functions, you can create your own modes. Each print device has its own set of modes. Press to see a list of all defined functions for that print device.

You can edit the functions you choose. If you want to delete a function from the list, choose the option you wish to delete and press. To add additional functions to the list, repeat Step 6. Repeat Steps 4 through 6 for each mode you want to create. DtThi ng Print forms are the types of paper on which you wish your output Forms printed. The print forms you define will be used as you set up print job configurations. The file server recognizes forms by name and number. When you send a print request that requires a specific form, the file server will not print the job until that form is mounted on the printer.

To define print forms, complete the following steps: 1. The first character of the form name must be alphabetic, and the form i m,1e e nnot exceed 12 characters. Type the number you want to assign to the form and press. You will probably want to assign the most commonly used form as form 0, since 0 is the default.

Form numbers must fall between 0 and Type the length of the form in lines per page and press. The number must fa]l between I and Type the width of the form in characters per line and press. The number must fall between I and Repeat Steps 1 through 5 for each form you want to define. Print Job As a Supervisor, you can create print job configurations for all Configuration users, using the forms, devices, and modes defined in PRINTDEF; select the default print job configuration; and copy print job configurations from one user to another.

Users can also set up their own print job configurations. When printing, they can choose this configuration instead of manually entering all the print job specifications. The printer will be returned to its default setting after the job is completed. Qeate Print You can set up a print job configuration by specifying certain Configuration parameters. To do this, complete the following steps: 1. To make changes in the job configuration, choose the item you want to modify and press.

Then make the appropriate change by typing in a new value or by choosing an item from the menu provided. After you have made the change, press to save the change. Once you have set up your job configuration, press. As Supervisor, you can copy print job configura- tions from one user to another.

You cannot copy a single job configurations at a time, but must copy the whole file, including all job configurations. To copy a print job configuration from one user to another, complete the following steps: 1. If you are using an application that is designed to work on a network, you can probably print your files from within the application, just as you would on a standalone personal computer. If you cannot print to the network printers from within your application, you must use the NetWare printing utilities.

From PCONSOLE, you may specify how you want the job lobe printed, choosing from the print job configurations set up by either you or your network supervisor. Once you specify how you want the job printed, it will wait in the queue until the printer is able to print it. If you are not sure which print queue to use, ask your network Supervisor. The jobs waiting to be printed will be displayed. To add a print job entry, press.

Use the Backspace key to delete the parts of the directory path that are incorrect. Now that you have specified the file you want to print, you must choose the way you want the file to be printed. Highlight PConsole Defaults the system-created defaults and press. However, you can first modify the print job if you like. To do so, press. Now press to confirm that you want to save the changes you have made.

The job will be added to the queue and printed when the printer is available. Highlight Yes and press to exit to DOS. In this practice session, you will print a copy of your drive mappings. To do so, you must display your drive mappings on the screen, and then send them as a file to the printer. Type: MAP A list of your drive mappings will appear on the screen. Press and simultaneousiy. An off-line printer could be caused by cabling or power problems. The former is a command- line utility which requires the use of ASCII Script files and is most useful when large numbers of accounts must be created at once.

FILER is also menu-driven and allows assignment of directory rights to users or groups of users. This section outlines the use of these utilities, describes the EPA-standard server configura- tion, and explains how these utilities are used to create user accounts and user groups.

Basically, the use of SYSCON involves selecting options on layers of pop-up menus until the action desired is displayed on one of the menus. SYSCON is a powerful program that integrates many of the NetWare command line utilities in addition to providing a few unique services of its own.

In order to use the SYSCON functions to add, delete, or modify many of the parameters, the user must have ustee rights equivalent to those of the user Supervisor. An explanation of the menu options follows: 1. Accounting , if installed, provides charge-back capability according to LAN resources utilized. Its use is not recoin- mended under normal circumstances for two reasons. Second, deciding what to charge for, how much to charge, and how to handle interdepartmental billing can become a difficult and time- consuming effort, especially in a Government setting.

DAT Supervisor Figure File Server Information shows various data about the sewer, such as which version of NetWare is currently installed, etc. Supervisor Options. The first two menu selections allow you to set default account and login time restrictions that will apply to all newly-created accounts. Password expiration time - no greater than 90 days.

Unique passwords will be required system prevents the reuse of the last 8 passwords. Default Time Restrictions By setting login time restrictions, the LAN Administrator can prevent new logins during specified hours or days of the week. Note that if a user is already logged in and his allowable login time passes, NetWare will not automatically terminate his connection; it will send a message requesting that he log out as soon as possible.

SYS in the System directozy will be executed when the file server boots up. This capability is normally used to establish printer mappings that differ from the NetWare default mappings. Appendix A of the Supervisor Refer- ence Manual contains descriptions of all the commands and variables that can be used in a login Script.

EPA-standard file servers are shipped with standard Scripts which do not ordinarily require modification. But, if a Script must be changed, extreme caution should be exercised. Virtually all are documented in the System Messages Manual. The Lan Administrator should check this log occasionally, taking corrective action when necessary, and should clear the log after problems have been rectified.

Create several practice directories and assign trustee rights to the Guest user. FILER implements many of the NetWare command line utilities in addition to providing a few unique services of its own. Various functions require either Supervisor security equivalency; parental rights to the directory to be modified; or appropriate Open, Read, Write, Modi1 r, Create, or Delete rights.

Read-Only and Read-Write Normally, application program flies and any associated overlay or configuration files should be flagged as read- only. This is sound practice even if only the network supervisor has all rights in the application directories, since it helps prevent the accidental corruption or deletion of important program flies. Word Perfect is an excellent mple of the difference between standalone and LAN-compatible applications.

Its network version does lock document flies opened during editing, thus alleviating this problem. Execute Only This attribute can be assigned only to. COM and. EXE files, and can be applied only by the network Supervisor. A file so flagged will appear in a directory listing and can be run, but it can neither be copied nor its contents displayed. Hidden When applied, this attribute prevents the tagged file from appearing in a directory listing.

DOS batch files will not run if so flagged, and some application programs are unable to find hidden data files. The FAT entry for a given file tells NetWare where all the pieces of that file are actually located on the disk drive. For a large file, such a FAT entry might be quite lengthy.

Each time the server reads from or writes to a small block of data, the server must scan the entire FAT to find where the data belong. If the FAT entry is large, this scanning process may take some time. Indexing the FAT entry speeds this process considerably. Regarding microcomputers, such large, frequently opened files are usually data base files. Novell recommends that this attribute be applied only to files of 2 Mb or larger.

Exercise restraint in using this feature because each indexed file causes the server to reserve a portion of RAM that could be used for other purposes. The steps involved in preparing the server for application software and user operation include: 1.

In general, a directory can be thought of as having an inverted tree or hierarchical structure. The advantage of this type of organizational structure is that it allows the program files for each application to be kept in their own directory. Thus, the directory structure on a standard EPA sewer generally appears as shown in Figure Each user on a network will need to maintain a directory of files to which only that user will normally have access.

The standard system login script assigns drive letter F: to this directory. All LAN users have unrestricted access to this directory; they can create, delete, and modify files at will, regardless who originally created those files. Therefore, this directory will have to be purged regularly. Its main purpose, however, is to provide statistics regarding file server performance, especially memory and disk usage. Through regular monitoring, the LAN Administrator can determine when a server is not performing efficiently and take corrective action.

This area encompasses a wealth of information, all of which is explained in the manual. The following concentrates on locating data which allow the LAN Administrator to determine if and what corrective action needs to be taken to improve file server per- formance. Smnm iy The following four categories of information appear on this Screen screen: 1. Disk Recuests Serviced from Cache. It should fall between 95 and 99 percent. If the percentage is lower, system RAM should be expanded.

If disk capacity is expanded greatly or if disk-intensive applications such as WasteLAN are added, this percentage may drop precipitously. Routing Buffers - Maximum and Peak Used. The file server can process a certain number of read or write requests simultaneously. Page 4. Ooen Piles. Maximum and Peak Used. This number represents the total number of files simultaneously held open by all workstations on the LAN. If the maximum number of open flies reaches the limit and a workstation tries to open additional files, the attempt will fail and that workstation will be placed on hold until either file handles are released elsewhere, or the shell times out an error condition.

Page , and NetWare Maintenance. Page Connections - Maximum and Peak Used. Advanced Netware allows up to active attachments to a file server. Attachments are defined as workstations that are either logged in to a server or attached to that server while logged in on another. If the peak number of connections used approaches or matches , another file server should be set up to accommodate part of this large pool of users. Cache Statistics Screen.

This screen presents detailed information about server cache performance and related disk reads and writes. If this count exceeds 0, server RAM must be expanded. The probable cause of disk thrashing is insufficient server RAM for the total amount of disk storage installed, combined with heavy server usage. Disk Statistics Screen. This becomes increasingly likely as the file server hardware ages.

File System Statistics Screen. However, this is a more critical problem because a corrupted file allocation table will cause the affected files to be unlocatable. Up-to-date backups will allow you to recover these lost files. Internal bridges are those most commonly used throughout the Agency.

Internal bridges are installed and operate on the file server itself. Functionally, they are identical to external bridges, but are installed in the file server at system generation time when the server is received by the user. Since a system generation is required to install an internal bridge, anyone having this require- ment after receiving their file server should contact LANSYS for assistance.

Since internal bridges are rarely installed on existing file servers, only external bridges are discussed in this document. An external bridge is one that runs on a workstation that does not perform as a file server. When an external bridge is used within the cable limitations for a network, it is called a LOCAL bridge.

External bridges can be operated in the dedi- cated bridge only mode or the non-dedicated bridge and workstation mode. This is usually accomplished via the building backbone. This file server is also internally bridged to the building backbone. You would like to add users on the 11th floor to the file server on the 10th floor. To properly accomplish this, you would have to add an external bridge on the 11th floor. You would actually be setting up an additional user ring on the 11th floor without adding a file server.

You would first have to install two token-ring adaptor boards in the bridge: One connected to the backbone and the other to the newly created user ring. You must then generate the software for the bridge. The reference manual discusses software generation in detail starting on Page Follow the instructions in the manual for bridge generation keeping the following facts in mind: 1.

The token-ring adapter card connected to the building backbone should be assigned the network address of the backbone. The token-ring adapter is connected to the newly created user ring. Do not arbitrarily choose a network address. By following the instructions for bridge generation, you have generated the software for use as a Local bridge. EXE file created during the bridge generation to the boot disk of the bridge PC.

R ote Bridges Remote bridges are used to connect a group of workstations that are outside the token-ring cable limitations to a file server. For example, to connect a group of three workstations in one building to a file server in another building across town would require one bridge PC at each location. The bridge at the file server location would have one token-ring card attached to the local server ring and a modem connected to a phone line.

The bridge PC at the remote location would be identically configured, with the token-ring card attached to the local ring for the three workstations and a modem attached to a phone line. For the bridge PC at the file server location, you would follow the instructions for Bridge software generation with the following exceptions: The driver for the local file server ring will be the token-ring LAN drivers.

EXE has been successfully generated, you will have to configure the bridge software for a remote connection. This is covered in Section 3 of the reference manual. This process allows you to configure the LAN driver and the modem you will use for the remote bridge connection. Since modems and a phone line are being used for the bridge, be sure to set up the file server bridge PC to receive calls to activate the bridge from the bridge PC at the remote location.

These instructions provide all the information you will need to configure the bridge software. After the server bridge PC software generation has been com- pleted, you will have to generate the workstation shell to be used in the bridge PC at the remote location. This is covered in detail starting on Page of the reference manual. When generating the remote bridge PC shell, be sure that the remote bridge initiates all call! As you can see, when a remote dial-in type bridge is prepared for use at the file server location, different remote bridges can dial into the file server bridge.

This can be particularly useful when only occasional file server access is required from different locations. This will result in considerably slower response at the workstation. To help decrease the time it takes to load programs into the workstation from the sewer, copy as many program files as possible to the workstation prior to attaching it to the server.

For example, if the LOGON program is copied onto the workstation, it does not have to be loaded from the server over the phone line to the workstation, resulting in a considerable time savings. This would be nue for any programs that you would run in the workstation. A bridge will remain up until the PC on which it resides is either taken down or a hardware problem is encountered.

In the case of a local file server bridge connected to the building backbone, the bridge PC will remain functional even if the server goes down. Next, check the token-ring cards for proper operation. Run the diagnostics on the token-ring card from the diskette that came with the card. EXE generation. Then, check the PC itself to assure that the PC is functioning properly. Remote Bridges Troubleshooting remote bridges is basically the same as with local bridges.

The only difference is the addition of the modems and the phone lines. Occasionally, phone lines can be noisy and cause connection problems. If the remote bridge does not make proper connection with the file server bridge PC, bring up the remote bridge a second time. If problems persist, check the modems for proper setup. The setup of the modems will vary from manu- facturer to manufacturer. They are used much like ordinary, non-networked computers- each processing its own files and using its own Disk Operating System DOS.

Hardware requirements for these workstations on a network running Novell Advanced NetWare are KB RAM, the appropriate network interface card, and at least one floppy drive. If you are installing only new equipment ordered from the SMA or FDC contacts, then all of the workstations will meet the minimum requirements.

All items are available on the SMA contract. The manual provides information relevant to configuring and installing the NIC and must be referenced during installation. If problems are encountered, refer to the Troubleshooting Section of the manual.

These cards contain a series of switches which configure the hardware to work ap- propriately with the software and other hardware present in the machine. Refer to the Guide to ODerations Manual for a detailed description of these switches and their proper settings. Under most conditions, the default settings referred to in the manual are appropriate.

Exceptions occur when other expansion cards are installed, and when interrupts and or ROWRAM addressing conflicts occur. These procedures should be followed to ensure proper installation. Proper independent verification of each workstation can make networking problem determination easier by eliminating problems caused by faulty workstation hardware connected to the network.

They should be requested to report any abnormalities to the LAN Administrator for analysis. No other special operating procedures are required. LAN Administrators can isolate most workstation hardware problems by using the following general guidelines: 1. In many cases, a thorough visual inspection of the equip- ment can save much time and effort by revealing problems that have been self-induced.

These problems usually arise after moving equipment, installing cards, etc. Go over the equipment, thoroughly checking for loose or improper cable connections, or other items that may have been knocked loose. If the cover to the equipment was removed, check the inside as well. If the equipment was operating normally prior to installa- tion of cards or changes to parameters or switches, consider these changes as causing the problem.

It may be necessary at times to restore the equipment to its original configura- tion and repeat the installation procedure. If errors occur only while attached to, or attempting to attach to the network, then it is reasonable to assume that the problem is associated with the adapter card, its cabling to the network, or possibly the switch or parameter settings selected. The adapter card and all cabling through to the MSAU should be tested. The System Diagnostic Routines received with the equip- ment can be used to isolate a hardware problem.

Opera- ting procedures for these routines are contained in manuals received with the system. Adapter Diagnostics 1. Turn the power switch on the workstation to OFF. The connectors are self-shorting when not installed. Insert the Training Diagnostics diskette into floppy Drive A: and dose the drive door. Turn the power to the workstation ON. Follow instructions on the screen to run the diagnostic routines. Select Option 0, Run Diagnostic Routines. The screen should indicate which Token-Ring Adapter s are installed in the computer.

Verify whether the list is correct. You can select whether or not to run the tests once or several times, or to log errors to a disk file or a printer if connected. Select an appropriate option to run the diagnostic routines. Select the appropriate response and verify that the adapter cable is not connected to the network. Beneath the status information, the diagnostics will display any information pertaining to testing status and error messages received during the tests. If an error occurs, refer to Chapter 3 of the Token-Ring Network Guide To Operations Manual for a detailed explanation of the error message and appropriate actions to take for each type of error.

The shell must be loaded into each workstation before the workstation can function on the network. When a command is entered at a workstation, the shell decides if it is a workstation task to be directed to DOS or a network task to be directed to NetWare. If the request is a network task, then the second part of the shell, Intenietwork Packet Exchange IPX , will be called to send the request to the file server or, in some cases, directly to other network stations.

This is the code used to interface IPX with the token-ring adapter card to send the request in packet form across the network. All files necessaly for installing and configuring the networking software on an individual workstation have been included on the SMA Workstation Installation disk received with each network file server. The following discussion presumes that the network interface card and the network cabling have been completed for this work- station.

For machines running DOS 3. X ANSI. COM At this time, the appropriate files should be copied to the root directory of the boot disk, using the DOS copy corn- inand. SYS file for the workstation to adapt it to the network operating environ- ment. At this point, the machine should be rebooted and checked for proper connection to the network. All Rights Reserved. All rights Reserved. The menu system will prompt users through the login procedures in a user friendly n nner.

Follow the instiuctions as outlined on the SMA Installation disk. SYS can be used to create or edit this file. The number of open files and the number of buffers available to DOS are among many parameters which can be modified by editing the file. Many programs that run under the DOS environment often require that several files be open simultaneously.

Additionally, the network shell running on a workstation requires added file access. The default DOS number of open files is 8. A value between 20 and 40 will result in better performance for network use. DOS will allocate a specific number of buffers to be used in storing the most recently transferred data between memory and the disk. The default DOS number of buffers is 2. A value between 16 and 30 is appropriate for most network use, depending on the applications which will be run from the workstation.

If a user complains of poor network disk access performance, you should increase these values. SYS file must reside in the root directory of the drive from which the system is booted A: if a floppy system; or C: if a hard disk system.

SYS file. After installing new software containing TSR programs, the workstation should be monitored for any abnormal operation. These addresses may have to be reassigned when other expansion boards are installed in the workstation. Upgrading to DOS 3.

Printers are thus able to be placed in more convenient locations without the restriction of being attached to a file server. LANSp can be installed in either a dedicated or background non-dedicated mode. In dedicated mode, the workstation perfornis no other function than serving the shared printers. Background mode allows the print server workstation to be used to run other applications while its printer s is being shared. Its presence is completely transparent to network users.

Network Super- visor or Supervisor-equivalent privileges are needed to complete the installation. Log in to the network as Supervisor and map a logical drive to the volume where you want to install LANSpoo1. Using the key, create a name for the new print server. Press again to select the new print server.

Enter additional information for password and name. Using the key, create a print queue for use with the new print server. Press again to select the new print queue. Enter additional information for queue operators, queue servers, and queue users.

Follow the prompts as they appear on the screen. Proceed to the app priate section on dedicated or back- ground installation, depending on which implementation you plan to use. Note: The file server must be powered down in order for the yAP to be recognized by the system.

Save these entries and proceed. VAP were copied. Power down the sever, then power it up again. After the usual screen messages appear, you will see the following message. Do you wish to load them? The NODE program will prompt you for parameters particular to the primers attached to the workstation. This process - running the NODE program, port selection, queue selection, communications parameter settings, and printer name - must be repeated for each printer to be used in conjunction with the LANSpoo1 server.

Press the key to exit the setup program. Save the settings you selected during installation in an initialization file. You may, however, change the name and specii a full path name. The servers and its queues can now be maintained through NetWare like any other print server on the network. Before incorporating LANSpoo1 into normal network procedures: 1. Ensure that the LANSpoo1 server is responding properly. Make a backup copy of the file NODE.

EXE in the event that you need to restore the system. This file has been serialized to the NetWare file server. LANSpooI will prompt you for additional infonnation to identify the specific printers to be configured on the print server.

Options on each screen can be altered using the keys to make selections and then pressing. The default values are correct for a Hewlett Packard Laser Jet printer. This process - port selection, queue selection, communication parameter settings and printer name - must be repeated for each printer that you plan to use with the dedicated print server.

Press the key again. You should now save the settings you selected during installation in an initialization file. INI on your A: drive. The server and its queues can now be maintained through NetWare just like any other print server on the network. If this is done, the shared printer s will Boot Time be available for network users at all times when the workstation is on.

For example, if a workstation is turned off for some reason, all an end user has to do is restart the machine. The following procedure will create a special user account that workstations will automatically attach to during booting to load LANSp Create a new user account. Press again to select the new user, and enter additional information for mistee rights. Select the Trustee Rights option from the User Information menu. Use the key to return to the system prompt.

You can use values of your own choosing. BAT file can continue with normal login procedures. EXE program at the packet level not through a user account , you can log out of the network and still have your printer available for other users. EXE program from memory Background Mode without rebooting your PC, but the program can be disabled and your printer returned to a local printer status at your workstation. To remove NODE. EXE and return a printer to a local status, follow these steps: 1.

Run the status program. Use the keys to highlight the printer you wish to remove if more than one printer has been loaded. The printer you selected will be removed from the network as a network printer and returned to a local printer status. The NODE. EXE program is not removed from memory. C o1e alone co,nn nds which report on the status of the yAP. They Canrn nds must be typed rum the NetWare server console.

The commands and their functions are: 1. This information may be needed if support is requested from LAN Systems. Printer 10 is available Attached to Queues: The number shown after the list of queues is the Print Queue ID. Repeat the same procedures at the server level that were required to install the program. If this is done, shared printers will be available for network users at all times. If the workstation is turned off for some reason, an end user only has to restart the machine.

The simplest way to accomplish this is to have the workstation log in to the network under an account with minimal rights, map to the drive where LANSpoo1 is stored, and run LANSpoo1. Running LANSpoo1 itself will log the workstation out of the network under that account and log in the station under the print server account.

This method is as follows: 1. End the autoexec. Also, this account should not have a password so that the login procedure will continue auto- matically. Go to this drive. INI is the initialization file you wish to run for a particular workstation. Note: Novell limits the exit command to 14 characters in a login Script. You need to exit to a batch file and cannot exit directly to LANSpooI with an initialization file specified.

BAT file will log in the workstation under a specified account. Once LANSpoo1 is run, you will automatically be logged out of the network and relogged in as the print server account. After all of the printers have been configured, the LANSpoo1 main menu will appear on the screen of the dedicated print server.

Selections can be made from the menu to monitor the current status of each printer. These utilities are available for troubleshooting LANSpoo1 problems. This file can be monitored for error conditions. EXE program running on the background mode print sewer is an interrupt driven TSR program which uses specific hardware interrupts for your parallel or serial card.

No other cards or devices can use the same interrupt being used by the shared printer. Interrupt conflicts are most likely to occur when configuring printers to serial ports, as these will use interrupts IRQ3 and IRQ4 which could conflict with some network interface card interrupts. If problems are encountered after setting up for hardware handshaking, try switching to sofrware handshaking. When running in background mode, the printer attached to the workstation can no longer be accessed as a local printer by the workstation.

You must log in to the network and access it as a network printer. For that reason, microcomputers pose numerous security issues. Any one work group LAN may be fairly self-contained. While expansion of the LAN is possible and probable , the domain in which breaches of security may occur generally remains manage- able for the work group System Administrator. Undesirable outside influences tend to be less of a factor since the system is somewhat contained. Access from one previously separated LAN to another is physically guaranteed.

No longer is a LAN, as a whole, centrally administered. Processing power and data storage are distributed, but so are access points for those who should not be allowed access. Security concerns are no longer just the concern of one manager in a centralized operation.

Security becomes a larger issue for all users and System Administrators. Issues of security in one work group may not be as stringent as those in another work group. However, since access to the resources of one work group can be attained by a user in another work group, some levels of security must be maintained throughout the network.

Greater levels of security may be implemented locally as required. These requirements must be combined with available methods for safeguarding data in order to find the levels necessary to ma tain a secure environment. Questions to be asked are: 1. If all or part of the data stored on the LAN is corrupted or destroyed, what are the r nfications?

How much effort would be required to return the system to its normal level of operation? Should the data be secured only from modification or should it be hidden from everyone but those authorized to see it. Who is allowed access to the data? Who might want access to the data? Are those who would access the data necessarily those who should have access? The levels of security needed to protect the resources of the LAN are dependent on the answers to these questions.

The following explains the points of access in a LAN environment and measures that can be taken to curtail or eliminate access by an intruder. These measures can be used in tandem with your requirements in order to formulate a security plan. It is the most In usion common point for access to the data since nearly all the process- ing is done at the PC, and software which provides access to the resources of a LAN is loaded from the PC.

Once this network shell is loaded, the PC is logically part of the network. A PC user, has access to data stored at the workstation itself and, possibly, to data stored on network file servers. Indeed, the floppy disk is one of the most common entry point for the introduction of a virus. By virtue of LAN intercon- nection, viruses have yet another avenue in which to spread.

File Servers. The majority of data to be shared by LAN users resides on the network file server. The server is generally executing a Network Operating System in dedicated mode. Therefore, to access and corrupt data, the intruder has to physically remove the file server or take the server down in order to first load DOS from the floppy drive.

Even though files on a dedicated NetWare server cannot be accessed at the server from DOS, an intruder could format the hard disk. If the server and keyboard are accessible to those other than the Administrator, the server could be powered down or reset. That is, all nodes are cabled to a central point - the wire closet.

One of the things that makes the token- ring attractive is that it allows for nodes to be added without disturbing the network. Unfortunately, this topology permits an intruder to attach to the network undetected. This access could occur at the wire closet or at the wall outlet of an unused run of cable. Access to a LAN with no con- nections to the outside world is generally limited to those with access to the facility itself.

Gateways provide access to resources outside the LAN. If gateways are established without appropriate security measures, then access to the LAN via outside resources can be established. Thissection highlights ways in which a LAN can be made snore secure and discusses policies already in place which mandate the use of certain security measures.

Several methods for securing access points will be given. Some may not need to be implemented, while others are required by policy. While reading this section, keep in mind the following: 1. Before making this determination, be reminded of the questions asked in the previous section. How important is the integrity of the data? How much will it cost to reestablish this integrity in the event of a catastrophic loss?

What are the ramifications of data falling into the wrong hands? While EPA has implemented the most effective security programs available, hackers may possibly circumvent these programs. Do not assume that the system is secure. Some methods for securing the workstation are: 1.

Use the key and lock provided with the workstation. If the PC must be kept on while the operator is out of the work area, the operator should lock the keyboard. Use the facility if it is available. Several devices which physicaliy prevent the PC from being removed from the work area are available. Depending on the criticality of the data, the room containing the PC can be phy frally secured. Numerous security systems are available which prevent access to the facility itself e.

If Confidential Business Information is processed within the facility, then one of these systems is probably required. Control the use of floppy diskettes. Use floppy diskettes only to boot the PC onto the network. If diskettes must be used to introduce data or programs from an outside source: o Test the programs on a non-networked floppy drive system.

The program should bomb if it attempts to access a non-existent hard disk. It is a PC. The Lock yAP allows the Mmn trator to implement password protection at the file server console. At the file server, Novell has imple- mented numerous features within the NetWare operating system which can aid the Administrator in accomplishing this goal. These features are summarized below.

Login restrictions are listed below: 1. Required Password. Minimum Password Length. This option must be set for all users or for individual users. Passwords should be no less than 6 characters in length, containing at least 1 alpha and 1 numeric character. Forced Periodic Password Change. Passwords must be changed at least every 90 days. This can be facilitated with the aforementioned NetWare feature. The user will be reminded by the Network Operating System NOS to change his password and can be forced to change it in order to log in.

This number should be kept to a wiMfrnum. Reouired Unique Passwords. The NOS will track the last 8 passwords used for any given account and will not allow these to be reused. This feature must be implemented on all LAN. Intruder Detection and Lockout. The NOS can be configured to detect a number of unsuccessful login attempts. This number can be set by the Administrator. Once the number of failed logins exceeds the number set, the account is disabled either for a defined amount of time or until the Supervisor unlocks the account.

Limited Number of Concurrent Logins. By default, NetWare allows the same user ID to be logged into the server more than once concurrently. This option must be set to allow only one concurrent log in session per ID. Station Restrictions. Administrators should limit access to their file servers to those users on their ring by default.

This restric- tion can be lifted when specific access is needed by a user on another ring. Providing all users with blanket access to all servers for ease of configuration is not allowed. This method of granting access is called assigning Trustee Rights. Furthermore, if several users needed the same levels of access as USER1, all users could be added to a group e. The important distinction here is that Directory Rights take precedence over Trustee Rights.

File Attributes. Directory and Trustee rights apply to all files in a given directory. File attributes can be assigned on a file-by-file basis and take precedence over directory rights and trustee assignments. Security Equivaleim The Trustee Msigrments of one user can be equated to another user by the Supervisor.

Any rights of the first user are given to the second user after the equivalence is made. Care must be taken when using this feature. Supervisor Rights. The Supervisor has all rights to all directories on a given file server. Furthermore, an ID that has been set security equivalent to the Supervisor, also has all rights to all directories.

Recommendations for use of file attributes in an application sharing environment can be found in the Application Operations Section of the LAN Technical Guidelines. Rights should be granted on an as-needed basis. For example, do not assign Parental or Write rights for a user or group of users who only need Read access.

Regularly scheduled backups of file server data is essential for protection against catastrophic corruption or loss of data. This door should remain locked at all times when the System Administrator does not need access.

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Host Requirements. Troubleshooting Flowcharts. Diagnostics Menu and Utilities - Error Messages. Login Script Commands Troubleshooting. Reset Password. Using the Printing Menu Utilities. Summary Screen. Remote Bridges Operation. Troubleshooting Adapter Diagnostics. Configuration Errors Known Bugs. Application Administration. Production Control. A communications server is sometimes referred to as a Gateway, because it provides access to other often dissimilar devices that are not directly connected to the network.

The user would then dial the modem and establish the desired connection. In a network environment, having a modem on every PC would be too expensive. Each add-on board can provide four ports for connection to modems or to a data switch. This hardware and software combination allows a PC to function as a gateway for network users to gain access to outside asynchronous devices. Installation of the add-on boards on the gateway PC. Installation of the control software on the file serier.

If, however, more than one add-on board is to be used, only two types of machines have been successfully used in the Agency: an IBM cr with kb of memory and an Epson Equity Ill with kb of memory. The Epson memory configuration may be changed by moving jumper switches in the machine and running the set-up software. Refer to the manuals provided by the manufacturer of each machine for specifics.

Since a hard disk is not required on the gateway, the example given will use a floppy disk. On the boot disk, create the config. Do the same for the autoexec. Copy the entire NACS program diskette to the boot disk. The autoexec. At this point you will select the base VO address and the Meinoiy segment address for each board you will install in the gateway.

You will now be prompted as to the course of action you wish to take in configuring each board you will use NACS Manual. Pages , 2. As each board setting is selected, the switch setting that must be made on each board is displayed. Make a note of the switch settings you select so the proper settings can be made on the boards during installation of the boards in the gateway.

You must now configure each port name and the software configuration parameters for each port NACS Manual. Pages , The screen will display the default settings for the NACS Server Name, the specific and logical names for each port, as well as the receive, transmit, and timeout ITO values for each port. The general name for all ports is UNE. This is veiy important for these names greatly simplify the manner in which a port is selected from the workstation when gateway access is required.

In the example given, all ports are configured identically. The configuration you will be using may or may not be similar. As an example, say that Ports 0 through 3 will remain unchanged. In this case the parameters will have to be changed. Pages Following the example in the manual, you should change the general name and the receive and transmit parameters. Again, following the prompt, you would change both the receive and transmit parameters to reflect the following: Baud Rate , Data Bits 7, Stop bits 1, Parity even.

Set the inactivity timeout ITO. This will clear and free a port for use if no activity occurs on the line for the specified timeout period in minutes. The value you specify will be your choice. However, do not set it so low that the user will not have time to complete a short phone call without losing his gateway connection. Your actual con- figuration will depend on the types of lines you attach to your gateway. This will be covered in more detail in the section on insnlling control software on the file sewer.

During installation of the NACS on Gateway PC software on the PC, you were instructed to make note of the switch settings you selected during the configuration process. Following the instructions in the NACS Manual, set the switch settings for each board being installed in accordance with the above mentioned list. To accomplish this, you must be logged on as Supervisor on the file server where the products are to be installed.

The installation must be done on the server, not on a workstation hard disk. All files created as part of the installation will be in this directory. Be sure to make copies of the diskettes to use during installation. Also included is the NACS!. This manual is the one referenced during this installation pro- cedure.

Place the origiii k in a safe place. Answer YES to the message if you wish to continue the installation process. You will be instructed, as shown on Page , to install the product diskette. After the products are installed, you must identify the users of the gateway applications. To do this, select the Modify Product Users option when it is displayed.

The first display you receive will be the users already allowed access to the gateway. If you wish to add a user that is not on the list, hit the key. A list of users who have not beeh authorized gateway access will be displayed. Move the cursor up or down until the user you want to add is highlighted and press the key.

This may be done for as many users as necessary. When you have finished, press the key to exit the installation process. If more that four concurrent sessions of either product are required, additional copies of the product must be purchased and installed. Afterwards a prompt to re- install the product will be received.

Be sure to answer NO to the re-install prompt. If you answer YES, you will write over any script files or batch files you may have previously created. These Script files simplify operation of the gateway for users who are not technically oriented. The Script files control all aspects of the gateway session which would otherwise be performed manually. Many script files have been developed for use on the NDPD file servers.

Download and use these flies, either with or without modification, at your site. Once the gateway is up and operational, no intervention is required by the LAN Administiator. The only time intervention may be required is if the gateway must berebooted,suchasafterapowerfailure. Gateway Daily use of the gateway by LAN workstations is simplified by two Operation by batch files provided with the gateway software. BAT performs the same functions. This program does not need to remain TSR for normal gateway use.

Use of a mark and release program before loading and after use will unload the program from memory. This poses another possible problem, however. The most common problem with ports that are connected to modems is caused by a noisy phone line. In any case, it is advisable to check all connections for a port when a problem is discovered with the port. First, ensure that all cable connections on the gateway end and on the service end are secure.

If all connections have been tested and no problems are found, the port on the gateway may be bad. Swap the cable from the gateway to the switch with another on the gateway that is working properly. If the known good gateway port works with the suspected bad switch port, the port on the gateway is probably defective. The WNIM board in the gateway will have to be repaired or replaced if one of the four ports on the board becomes defective.

The terminals are used in on-line, interactive sessions with an IBM-type host computer. The most efficient terminal access to these systems is the full-screen, synchronous terminals. Through emulation hardware and software, a workstation on the network can perform the same functions as the terminal. Additionally, the network workstation can receive and store flies from the host computer, modify or reformat display data, run local application programs, and send output to the host computer.

Emulation software allows the network workstation to perform as a Type 1 terminal. The Model 2 display is compatible with the normal PC display, with 24 lines of 80 characters each. The Model 3 has a line display; the Model 4 a line display; and the Model 5, a line by column display. Workstations on the LAN can initiate a session with the mainframe through the gateway. To start the session, the work- station simply loads the emulation software. No special hardware is required at the workstation; the hardware resides in the gateway server attached to the network.

The workstation software, NetWare LAN Workstation, provides access to mainframe applications and files through terminal emulation. A typical workstation configuration consists of one host session and one DOS session. The file transfer utility is included with the workstation software, permitting users to upload and download data between the PC and the mainframe. Keyboard functions identical to those of a terminal are provided on network workstations. The gateway software includes keyboard template overlays, which facilitate function key usage.

Manual and utility software is included for remapping the keyboard setup. One advantage of the Novell gateway is that as many as five simultaneous mainframe sessions can be active on a single work- station. Depending upon the user profiles, each session may take up the entire screen or be displayed in concurrent windows, and users can switch from one session to another.

Advantages Numerous advantages exist for attaching a networked computer as of a mainframe workstation. A few of these advantages are: Workstations 1. The ability to capture a complete mainframe session for later review or analysis. The ability to extract mainframe information and manipulate it locally on the LAN workstation.

Small computational work is downloaded to the local level, reducing the workload on the mainframe. The ability to manipulate downloaded mainframe data with personal computer application programs. Not only does this reduce mainframe costs and resources, but PC applications are typically easier to use and are often more sophisticated for specific applications.

Added functionality increases memory incrementally, permitting more effective customization. The workstation software can be removed from resident memory, allowing the workstation to run other applications. Each workstation package contains four 3. The read. The readme. To begin installation procedures, the LAN Administrator will log on the file server where the workstation software is to be installed and make a directory i.

The Adininis- trator will then copy the appropriate files to the newly created directory. After the files have been copied, the Workstation Control Program must be customized. Hardware interface customization is not required, as all of these are controlled by the Network Server Control Program.

Instead, a Workstation Customization panel is used to define the workstation-to-server connectivity. Workstations can be customized for a PC session, with one to five host sessions. Following is an overview of the functions of the installation procedure. Additional screens for various functions relating to the network file server, gateway server, communications link, and host configuration will be displayed.

Each of these requires parameters which should be specified according to the particular configuration. Figure , Workstation Customization Panels , lists the display panels and parameters that are necessary to complete a single workstation customization procedure; other workstation customiza- tions are similar.

Remote Print Before you can use the workstation control program for remote Device Setup printing, you must submit a Telecommunications Service Request TSR and define the Logical Unit LU to be used for a print session, customizing the gateway software with a unique access code.

The workstation control program can then be customized to access the LU that is identified at the gateway. The same procedures used for customizing the workstation control program for a display session can be used for a printer session.

On page 28 of the manual, an explanation is given of the print options. The Workstation access code must match the access code from the server pool previously set up at the gateway that has been defined for the print session. The workstation will then be able to load the emulation program for controlling the print session. J41si LAN W. English Figure Batch File After successful completion and testing of the workstation control Creation program, a batch file should be created.

The batch file will map you to the directory where the workstation software resides and execute the emulation program that is desired. This file is archived and should be unpacked before you try to use it. Included with this file is an example of a batch file, a screen detect program to check the monitor type, and a keyboard type prompt program for 83 and key keyboards. Using this 1 Sending host print to a LAN printer may caise the print to be Intermix with other print.

E command if a problem occurs. File Transfer Before any file transfers can be performed, the sendrn and Installation receive. Receive diskette that is included with the workstation package. LoatTh g and The wsexit. The wsexit. Initially, the LAN Administrator will spend most of his time showing users the functionality of the emulation program.

Acc csing and When you need terminal access, you must first log onto the Using the file server. A template is included with the workstation software that defines the PF keys. A different name for the file transfer send e e should be created i. After the workstation control program has been loaded, the vector graphic control program can be loaded. The graphic portion will use approximately K of memoiy.

Once loaded, the vector graphic portion will emulate a G terminal. The vector graphic control program can be unloaded when it is no longer needed without loosing the connection to the host. Send-Receive The software supplied by Novell send. To perform a file transfer to the host, you must first sign on to the file server where the workstation software has been placed.

To perform the file transfer command, the emulation program must be loaded. The workstation can then hot-key to the host session and sign on. Figure , File Transfer ExamDles. This will allow software applica- Program tions that need a lot of memory in tim. With the unload program i.

After the SNA gateway software has been customized and loaded, the gateway control program will use most of the memory in the PC. If the gateway pc is rebooted or powered off for any reason, the workstations that have a session to the host will be disconnected. In the event of a host stop or an Initial Program Loader IPL , the gateway will automatically reestablish the connection to the host.

Some gateways can be configured with up to sessions and 97 workstations connected at one time. To accommodate more users, multiple gateways can be installed on the backbone as necessary. Only two of the configurations are discussed here: the Remote!

Besides the gateway software and token-ring adapter card, the R. Access to the SNA gateway is obtained by using the workstation software, which should reside on the file server. After the workstation software has been loaded, the PC can emulate a terminal and hot. The presence and number of host print sessions, the number of concurrent sessions to be active per workstation, the total number of sessions available with the gateway, and the number of concurrent workstation users determine each configuration.

Currently, the typical EPA configuration for the SNA gateway is sixty-four sessions for performance reasons , each of which has a mainframe host session with local DOS print session. The planning activity includes the preparation of a TSR for the gateway. Currently, each gateway contains a set of five 3. Some important installation notes are included in a file called readme. Both the readme. The installer should verify the contents of each of the diskettes by checldng the files listed in the documentation against the files on the diskettes.

It is not necessaiy Server to sign onto the file server or be attached to it in order to bring up the SNA gateway. The LAN Administrator should make a backup copy of the gateway software and the configuration. When installing the SNA gateway software, the Administrator should make a directory on the file server i. See the short dmciipdon listed in the gnedma4w file.

Figure 3. Refer to the Novell documentation for appropriate DIP switch settings. The Novell gateway is supplied with a modem cable. After the cables have been connected to the appropriate devices, the board jnst p jon is complete. The IBM adapter cards are the same interface cards used in the workstation nodes. Connection If the procedures for configuring and loading the hardware and software have been followed, the test procedure will proceed rapidly and without encountering problems.

Before attempting to test the gateway, recheck the LAN status. If the gateway is to be installed on a new LAN, it is advisable to begin gateway testing with only the file server, the gateway server, and one workstation. Until the gateway and one workstation have been successfully tested, it is not advisable to configure the remaining workstations.

The first step is to confirm with Telecommunications that the gateway has been configured as specified in the TSR. This should be accomplished in advance of the testing and Telecommunications should be alerted to the gateway testing schedule. Type of Connection to the host o 1b i. Session per Workstation 1 Max S Figure Gateway Customization Panel for TIC Connection The second step is to configure the software for the gateway server and workstation control programs as discussed earlier.

This is followed by loading the software onto the file server or gateway server as indicated. The particular LAN configuration can have more than one host and one printer session per workstation. Once these factors have been determined and the software configured and loaded, the hardware installation can proceed. When configured, the LAN Adnilnisnator assigns an interrupt for the adapter.

This step likewise requires planning and a TSR. Telecommunications should be called before loading and executing the gateway software. Telecommunications personnel will verify that the gateway connection has been established and the line is active. If problems occur, Telecommunications will be able to assist in detecting and correcting the problems. NetView and the NetWare Gateway Status Utility can be used to monitor the line see Diagnostic Procedures, Page for further information , determine the status of the emulated controller, and inform the LAN Administrator when the workstation is being polied.

This means that occasionally the line has to be dropped, the controller reset and, on rare occasions, the power must be turned off. Corresponding actions with the gateway software include having Telecommunications personnel drop and reactivate the line, and having the LAN Administrator reboot the gateway server. Normally, the gateway PC remains up and running, as does the file server. When the gateway has been turned off or rebooted, it must be restarted before any workstations are brought up.

Assistance may be required to establish the line the first time. Thereafter, this process will be routine and transparent to the workstation users. Therefore, It is a cmmended that WQ3 be or the token. The host or FEP processors may experience hardware or software problems and may be taken down at any time.

The SNA gateway will remain up and operational without any intervention. When the host and FEP are brought back on-line, the gateway will re- establish its connection. This manual can be used to resolve many of the gateway and workstation problems. Most of the sections are not listed in any particular order, so to find the information that relates to a specific problem, it may be necessary to read through all of them.

Troubleshooting The Troubleshooting Flowcharts section cont in eight flowcharts Flowcharts and provides instructions for identifying and resolving SNA gateway and gateway workstation problems. The Troubleshooting Flowcharts section starts on Page 25 and ends on Page Diagnostics Chapter three of the diagnostic supplement describes bow to install Menu and and use the SNA Gateway Diagnostics menu and utilities.

The Utilities diagnostic menu and utilities can be a valuable troubleshooting tool for isolating problems with the gateway. A brief explanation detailing the utility is included. Error Chapter four of the Diagnostic Supplement contains a list of Mftccages common error messages along with an explanation of each and the corrective action to be taken. The error messages are listed in alphabetical order for quick access.

Once the software is installed, it can be called from any workstation attached to the LAN. The program will prompt for a ring address the ring address is where the gateway PC is attached and an update interval time used between status displays. The number of mukaneous gateway status programs nnot excued the number specified when custom Wng the gateway software. The maximum number that ran be used is 5. U more workstations are using the gateway status utility than specifled Novel warns that the gateway will aash.

The PF1 key is used for on-line help and the enter key is used for specified user information. Changes to the SNA gateway software will not be necessary; however, the workstation software will need to be customized. See the Workstation Customization section for remote print devices.

The S ucture system for storing this information is called the directoiy structure. Information is organized logically on the hard disk in units called files. For example, a file might be a letter or a list of addresses. When you save information in a file, you give the file a unique name so you can retrieve it later.

The system is broken down as follows: File servers contain Hard dish, which are divided into one or more Volumes, which are divided into Directories, which are divided into Subdirectories, which contain Files. In general, directories can be thought of as having a tree or hierarchical structure; that is, there is a root directory broken down into branch directories, each of which may contain additional subdirectories, and so on. The advantage of this organizational structure is that it allows program and data files for a particular application program to be kept separate from files that belong to a different application.

Instead of searching through a long list of files from a variety of applications, you need only change to the ap- propriate subdirectory and search through its files. Contains the network operating system, along with certain server utilities to which the network Supervisor should be allowed access. EXE programs. E file is the program that lists all servers by name that are currently attached to the network MAIL.

Contains applications software programs, such as word processing, spreadsheet data base, etc. If you are proficient in the use of DOS, these commands may be somewhat easier and faster when implementing a directory structure rather than using the FILER program. Use the backspace key to delete the directory informa- tion displayed. This will ensure that the current directory is the root directory.

A window for typing the new directory name will be displayed. Repeat this step for each of the directories you wish to create directly from the root directory. Two login scripts are associated with every login: System and User. The System Login Script is a series of NetWare commands ap- plicable to every user who logs into the file server. It is the first script executed when a user logs in.

Because it is applicable to every network user, the System Login Script contains the minimal number of NetWare commands necessary for network functioning. The second login script to be executed when a user logs into the file server is the User Login Script. This script is also a series of NetWare commands.

It contains the commands that customize file server access for the network user. Care must be taken when modifying Script since several other system functions may be affected. If appropriate login script commands have been entered and many convenient tasks will be performed automatically for you when you log in.

Highlight Supervisor Options and press. Highlight System Login Script and press. The System Login Script will be displayed. To exit the System Login Script, press. If you have changed the login script, you will be asked to confirm that you want to save the changes before you exit. Figure is an example of the Default System Login Script. Highlight User Information and press. Highlighttheuseryouwanttoassignaloginscripttoand press. Highlight Login Script and press. Use the Backspace key to delete the user name listed.

Type in the name of the user whose Login Script you want to create and press. A blank screen of Login Script For User will be displayed. You can enter the Login Script commands for this user. To exit the User Login Script, press. Care should be taken when modifying the System Login Script because this script will be executed for every user logging onto the server.

Note: When you enter Login Script commands, be sure to end each line by pressing the key. Words that are wrapped automatically onto the next line because the end of the line was reached are still considered part of the previous command. Only a few restrictions apply: o Command lines cannot exceed characters. To increase readability, however, we recommend that you use only 78 characters per line--the width of your screen.

Press the Help key at any time during editing to receive help. Users will have a working area on the file server in which to store their data or programs. Users will have all access rights to their HOME directories and users will be given appropriate security for their work. The Supervisor is permanent, and has all rights in all servers and file directories. Highlight User Infonnalion and press. Highlight Full Name and press , then type John Doe 5.

Highlight Change Password and press. Type the password inthe box. Highlight the Groups Belonged To option and press. A list of groups that JDOE does not belong to will appear. Highlight Trustee Assignments and press. Specify the directory in which you want to make the user a mistee. If you know the directory name, type it and press. If you specify a nonexistent directory, you will be asked if you want to create that directory. Highlight the file server you want to access and press.

Continue choosing directories until you have specified the full directoryname. Then press and to make the user a trustee of the directory you have specified. To grant additional rights for this user to the directory, highlight the directory and press. Use Mark key to select the additional rights, then press. Chapter 2. Type in your old password and press.

Type in your new password and press. Adding User To add a user to an existing group, follow these steps: to a Group 1. The users on the current file server will be displayed. Highlight the user you want to add to a group and press.

Press to see a list of groups the user does not belong to. Highlight the group to which you wish to add the user. If you want to add the user to more than one group, use the Mark key F5 to mark each group. The user is now a member of the selected group. Highlight User Infonnadon and press. The users on the current file sewer will be displayed. Highlight the user you want to delete from a group and press.

Highlight the group from which you want to delete the user. If you want to delete the user from more than one group, use the Mark key CF5 to mark the additional groups. Then press. The user has now been deleted from the group. Making a User To make a user a trustee of a directory, follow these steps: a Trustee of a Directory 1. Highlight the user you want to make a trustee of a directory and press. Highlight Trustee Msipments and press. Specify the directory in which you want to make the user a trustee.

If you specify a nonexistent directoxy, you will be asked if you want to create that directory. If you do not know the directory name, press the key to list available file servers. The user now has all trustee rights in the specified directory. If you want to delete several rights, use the Mark key to mark them.

The right has been revoked. If you want to add several rights, use the Mark key to mark them. The right has been granted. When you print on a network printer, you do not send print job requests directly to the printer. Instead, you send your requests to the file server. Print job requests are stored and serviced in the order in which they are received.

Some applications for example; WordPerfect Network Version are designed for use on a network. The files must either be in ASCII format or formatted by the application with the correct control characters for a designated printer. D fining To define a printefs functions, complete the following steps: Print Device Functions 1. The name should be recognizable to users for example: HP LaserJet.

Choose the print device you want to define, and press. Be sure to include the reset escape sequence. To enter a device function, press. Enter the actual escape sequence e. Repeat Steps 5 through 8 for each function or escape sequence you want to enter. Defb ng Print Once you have defined the functions for a print device, you can Device Modes combine these functions into modes. A mode is a sequence of print functions which tells the printer how to print a particular job.

Determine what your printing needs are, and define the modes accordingly. To define print device modes, complete the following steps. Most devices have a single escape sequence for reset. Choose the function or escape sequence for the reset and press. After you have entered the Reinitialize mode functions, you can create your own modes. Each print device has its own set of modes. Press to see a list of all defined functions for that print device. You can edit the functions you choose.

If you want to delete a function from the list, choose the option you wish to delete and press. To add additional functions to the list, repeat Step 6. Repeat Steps 4 through 6 for each mode you want to create. DtThi ng Print forms are the types of paper on which you wish your output Forms printed. The print forms you define will be used as you set up print job configurations.

The file server recognizes forms by name and number. When you send a print request that requires a specific form, the file server will not print the job until that form is mounted on the printer. To define print forms, complete the following steps: 1. The first character of the form name must be alphabetic, and the form i m,1e e nnot exceed 12 characters.

Type the number you want to assign to the form and press. You will probably want to assign the most commonly used form as form 0, since 0 is the default. Form numbers must fall between 0 and Type the length of the form in lines per page and press. The number must fa]l between I and Type the width of the form in characters per line and press. The number must fall between I and Repeat Steps 1 through 5 for each form you want to define.

Print Job As a Supervisor, you can create print job configurations for all Configuration users, using the forms, devices, and modes defined in PRINTDEF; select the default print job configuration; and copy print job configurations from one user to another. Users can also set up their own print job configurations.

When printing, they can choose this configuration instead of manually entering all the print job specifications. The printer will be returned to its default setting after the job is completed. Qeate Print You can set up a print job configuration by specifying certain Configuration parameters. To do this, complete the following steps: 1. To make changes in the job configuration, choose the item you want to modify and press. Then make the appropriate change by typing in a new value or by choosing an item from the menu provided.

After you have made the change, press to save the change. Once you have set up your job configuration, press. As Supervisor, you can copy print job configura- tions from one user to another. You cannot copy a single job configurations at a time, but must copy the whole file, including all job configurations. To copy a print job configuration from one user to another, complete the following steps: 1.

If you are using an application that is designed to work on a network, you can probably print your files from within the application, just as you would on a standalone personal computer. If you cannot print to the network printers from within your application, you must use the NetWare printing utilities.

From PCONSOLE, you may specify how you want the job lobe printed, choosing from the print job configurations set up by either you or your network supervisor. Once you specify how you want the job printed, it will wait in the queue until the printer is able to print it. If you are not sure which print queue to use, ask your network Supervisor.

The jobs waiting to be printed will be displayed. To add a print job entry, press. Use the Backspace key to delete the parts of the directory path that are incorrect. Now that you have specified the file you want to print, you must choose the way you want the file to be printed. Highlight PConsole Defaults the system-created defaults and press. However, you can first modify the print job if you like.

To do so, press. Now press to confirm that you want to save the changes you have made. The job will be added to the queue and printed when the printer is available. Highlight Yes and press to exit to DOS. In this practice session, you will print a copy of your drive mappings. To do so, you must display your drive mappings on the screen, and then send them as a file to the printer. Type: MAP A list of your drive mappings will appear on the screen. Press and simultaneousiy.

An off-line printer could be caused by cabling or power problems. The former is a command- line utility which requires the use of ASCII Script files and is most useful when large numbers of accounts must be created at once. FILER is also menu-driven and allows assignment of directory rights to users or groups of users.

This section outlines the use of these utilities, describes the EPA-standard server configura- tion, and explains how these utilities are used to create user accounts and user groups. Basically, the use of SYSCON involves selecting options on layers of pop-up menus until the action desired is displayed on one of the menus.

SYSCON is a powerful program that integrates many of the NetWare command line utilities in addition to providing a few unique services of its own. In order to use the SYSCON functions to add, delete, or modify many of the parameters, the user must have ustee rights equivalent to those of the user Supervisor. An explanation of the menu options follows: 1. Accounting , if installed, provides charge-back capability according to LAN resources utilized.

Its use is not recoin- mended under normal circumstances for two reasons. Second, deciding what to charge for, how much to charge, and how to handle interdepartmental billing can become a difficult and time- consuming effort, especially in a Government setting. DAT Supervisor Figure File Server Information shows various data about the sewer, such as which version of NetWare is currently installed, etc.

Supervisor Options. The first two menu selections allow you to set default account and login time restrictions that will apply to all newly-created accounts. Password expiration time - no greater than 90 days. Unique passwords will be required system prevents the reuse of the last 8 passwords. Default Time Restrictions By setting login time restrictions, the LAN Administrator can prevent new logins during specified hours or days of the week.

Note that if a user is already logged in and his allowable login time passes, NetWare will not automatically terminate his connection; it will send a message requesting that he log out as soon as possible. SYS in the System directozy will be executed when the file server boots up. This capability is normally used to establish printer mappings that differ from the NetWare default mappings. Appendix A of the Supervisor Refer- ence Manual contains descriptions of all the commands and variables that can be used in a login Script.

EPA-standard file servers are shipped with standard Scripts which do not ordinarily require modification. But, if a Script must be changed, extreme caution should be exercised. Virtually all are documented in the System Messages Manual. The Lan Administrator should check this log occasionally, taking corrective action when necessary, and should clear the log after problems have been rectified. Create several practice directories and assign trustee rights to the Guest user.

FILER implements many of the NetWare command line utilities in addition to providing a few unique services of its own. Various functions require either Supervisor security equivalency; parental rights to the directory to be modified; or appropriate Open, Read, Write, Modi1 r, Create, or Delete rights. Read-Only and Read-Write Normally, application program flies and any associated overlay or configuration files should be flagged as read- only. This is sound practice even if only the network supervisor has all rights in the application directories, since it helps prevent the accidental corruption or deletion of important program flies.

Word Perfect is an excellent mple of the difference between standalone and LAN-compatible applications. Its network version does lock document flies opened during editing, thus alleviating this problem. Execute Only This attribute can be assigned only to. COM and. EXE files, and can be applied only by the network Supervisor. A file so flagged will appear in a directory listing and can be run, but it can neither be copied nor its contents displayed. Hidden When applied, this attribute prevents the tagged file from appearing in a directory listing.

DOS batch files will not run if so flagged, and some application programs are unable to find hidden data files. The FAT entry for a given file tells NetWare where all the pieces of that file are actually located on the disk drive. For a large file, such a FAT entry might be quite lengthy. Each time the server reads from or writes to a small block of data, the server must scan the entire FAT to find where the data belong. If the FAT entry is large, this scanning process may take some time.

Indexing the FAT entry speeds this process considerably. Regarding microcomputers, such large, frequently opened files are usually data base files. Novell recommends that this attribute be applied only to files of 2 Mb or larger. Exercise restraint in using this feature because each indexed file causes the server to reserve a portion of RAM that could be used for other purposes. The steps involved in preparing the server for application software and user operation include: 1.

In general, a directory can be thought of as having an inverted tree or hierarchical structure. The advantage of this type of organizational structure is that it allows the program files for each application to be kept in their own directory.

Thus, the directory structure on a standard EPA sewer generally appears as shown in Figure Each user on a network will need to maintain a directory of files to which only that user will normally have access. The standard system login script assigns drive letter F: to this directory.

All LAN users have unrestricted access to this directory; they can create, delete, and modify files at will, regardless who originally created those files. Therefore, this directory will have to be purged regularly. Its main purpose, however, is to provide statistics regarding file server performance, especially memory and disk usage. Through regular monitoring, the LAN Administrator can determine when a server is not performing efficiently and take corrective action.

This area encompasses a wealth of information, all of which is explained in the manual. The following concentrates on locating data which allow the LAN Administrator to determine if and what corrective action needs to be taken to improve file server per- formance.

Smnm iy The following four categories of information appear on this Screen screen: 1. Disk Recuests Serviced from Cache. It should fall between 95 and 99 percent. If the percentage is lower, system RAM should be expanded. If disk capacity is expanded greatly or if disk-intensive applications such as WasteLAN are added, this percentage may drop precipitously.

Routing Buffers - Maximum and Peak Used. The file server can process a certain number of read or write requests simultaneously. Page 4. Ooen Piles. Maximum and Peak Used. This number represents the total number of files simultaneously held open by all workstations on the LAN. If the maximum number of open flies reaches the limit and a workstation tries to open additional files, the attempt will fail and that workstation will be placed on hold until either file handles are released elsewhere, or the shell times out an error condition.

Page , and NetWare Maintenance. Page Connections - Maximum and Peak Used. Advanced Netware allows up to active attachments to a file server. Attachments are defined as workstations that are either logged in to a server or attached to that server while logged in on another. If the peak number of connections used approaches or matches , another file server should be set up to accommodate part of this large pool of users.

Cache Statistics Screen. This screen presents detailed information about server cache performance and related disk reads and writes. If this count exceeds 0, server RAM must be expanded. The probable cause of disk thrashing is insufficient server RAM for the total amount of disk storage installed, combined with heavy server usage.

Disk Statistics Screen. This becomes increasingly likely as the file server hardware ages. File System Statistics Screen. However, this is a more critical problem because a corrupted file allocation table will cause the affected files to be unlocatable. Up-to-date backups will allow you to recover these lost files.

Internal bridges are those most commonly used throughout the Agency. Internal bridges are installed and operate on the file server itself. Functionally, they are identical to external bridges, but are installed in the file server at system generation time when the server is received by the user. Since a system generation is required to install an internal bridge, anyone having this require- ment after receiving their file server should contact LANSYS for assistance.

Since internal bridges are rarely installed on existing file servers, only external bridges are discussed in this document. An external bridge is one that runs on a workstation that does not perform as a file server. When an external bridge is used within the cable limitations for a network, it is called a LOCAL bridge.

External bridges can be operated in the dedi- cated bridge only mode or the non-dedicated bridge and workstation mode. This is usually accomplished via the building backbone. This file server is also internally bridged to the building backbone.

You would like to add users on the 11th floor to the file server on the 10th floor. To properly accomplish this, you would have to add an external bridge on the 11th floor. You would actually be setting up an additional user ring on the 11th floor without adding a file server. You would first have to install two token-ring adaptor boards in the bridge: One connected to the backbone and the other to the newly created user ring.

You must then generate the software for the bridge. The reference manual discusses software generation in detail starting on Page

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